PowerBase: Just completed: NUWG - UK police overturning lawful pressure groups
tony at cultureshop.org.uk
Thu Dec 24 18:02:58 GMT 2015
National Undercover Working Group
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This article is part of the Undercover Research
Portal at PowerBase - investigating corporate and police spying on activists.
Part of a series on
Undercover Policing Organisations
National Undercover Working Group
National body for setting the framework for undercover policing in the UK
Association of Chief Police Officers, National Police Chief's Council
1990s to present (2015)
The National Undercover Working Group (NUWG) is a
organisation that bring together practitioners in
undercover policing from all UK police forces
under the aegis of the Association of Chief
Police Officers and then the National Police
Chief's Council. Existing since the 1990s, it is
chaired by an officer of Assistant Chief
Constable level. Following a reorganisation of
policing structures it has been tasked with
providing "strategic leadership and direction in
this sensitive area of police work." It works
with the College of Policing to set national
standards and provide a framework for undercover
policing across the United Kingdom.
Little is known about the Group, other than what
was revealed in Stephen Otter's 2014 report for
HM Inspectorate of Constabulary, An inspection of
undercover policing in England and Wales.
Numbers in parenthesis below refer to specific paragraphs in that report.
The NUWG came under heavy criticism in Otter's
report, which said it suffered from poor
leadership. It had taken a year to adopt
recommendations of a 2012 report from the
National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) (now
also part of the College of Policing), while the
implantation was far from complete.(paragraph
8.19) The 2014 report also highlighted a
significant number of problems with the framework
under which undercovers were deployed, as well as
a lack of standards and processes. These problems
included inconsistent training and psychological
assessment, authorising and decision-making, and compliance.
In the wake of the scandal surrounding Mark
Kennedy and revelations about other undercover
officers the College of Policing created in 2014
the National Undercover Scrutiny Panel 'to
provide greater transparency and review of undercover policing'.
1 Organisation ownership
2 Activities and internal organisation
2.1 Accreditation of undercover officers
2.2 National guidance on undercover policing
2.3 Placement of undercovers
4.1 Chair people
4.2 Other members
5 See also
6 External Resources
The NUWG started of as a working group
established by the Chief Constables' Council,
which was the highest decision-making level of
the Association of Chief Police Officers. The
Council was 'responsible for coordinating
operational policing needs and leading the
implementation of national standards set by the
College of Policing or the government.' (paragraph 7.9).
For a long time, ACPO was one of the leading
police organisations in England and Wales
providing many national functions, though its
structure as a private company brought it in for
criticism. One of its most important divisions
was the Terrorism and Allied Matters Committee
(ACPO TAM), which oversaw the domestic extremism
units, and thus the undercover police targeting
protest groups. Following the exposure of one of
its undercovers, Mark Kennedy, the domestic
extremism units were transferred to the
Metropolitan Police. In 2013, an independent
review by General Sir Nick Parker recommended
that ACPO be replaced by a new body in the
interests of greater transparency and cost
effectiveness. On the basis of these
recommendations two new organisations were
formed, the National Police Chief's Council and
the College of Policing, with the latter taking
over some of ACPO's functions but also those of
the National Policing Improvement Agency.
For a while the transition period lead to a
situation with chief police officers running
portfolios and business areas in both ACPO and
the College of Policing. The 2014 HMIC report
tried to explain the situation at that point in time (paragraph 7.10-7.13):
There are 12 national policing business areas
that provide the direction and development of
policing policy and practice in specific areas.
The chief constables who lead these business
areas are members of both the Colleges
Professional Committee and the Chief Constables
Council. Within each business area, there are a
number of portfolios and working groups led by
chief police officers who act as national
policing leads for specific issues. The Crime
Business Area has responsibility for the
development of undercover policing policy and
practice, and this is delegated to the Organised Crime Portfolio...
Supporting the work of the Organised Crime
Portfolio are 14 themed-based working groups, one
of which is the National Undercover Working Group.
The National Undercover Working Group is a
multi-agency group which works with the College
of Policing to set national standards in the area
of undercover policing. It also helps chief
constables to provide strategic leadership and
direction in this sensitive area of police work.
The Working Group is led by a chief officer and
comprises trained and experienced officers and
related specialists, who provide advice and their
expertise to ensure that its guidance is relevant and accurate.
The members of the Working Group meet every six
months. A police officer or equivalent from every
area or region of law enforcement in the United
Kingdom with an undercover capability sits on the
Working Group. Organisations that have a direct
interest in its work, such as the College of Policing, are also represented.
In 2012 and 2013, the NUWG was part of the ACPO
Crime Business Area's Serious and Organised Crime
Portfolio; As part of various
re-organisations of policing structures,
responsibility for standards transferring to the
College of Policing in the latter year, though
the NUWG itself has subsequently passed from ACPO
to the National Police Chief's Council.
Activities and internal organisation
The 2014 HMRC report also described the work of
the National Undercover Working Group (paragraph 7.19 - 7.21):
To raise standards and to improve the way in
which the police and law enforcement agencies use
the tactic of undercover policing. Address issues
concerning: the deployment of undercover
officers; the psychological support that officers
receive; the accreditation and registration of
undercover units; the identification, development
and promotion of best practice; and the
development and production of policies and procedures.
With the College of Policing, to be at the
forefront of developments concerning national training and accepted practice.
Co-ordinate all matters of an international
nature in the world of undercover policing,
primarily by liaising with the International
Working Group on Undercover Police Activities.
On paper, the Group is further divided into seven
sub-groups, each led by a senior police officer
and helped by practitioners with a specific
knowledge. The sub-groups would cover issues such
as training; legal issues and standards; the role
of the cover officer and welfare issues; the role
of the undercover covert manager; legend-building
for undercover officers; undercover online
policing; and the use of technical equipment.
However, according to the HMIC report, a number
of these subgroups appear to have fallen by the
wayside, while others lacked certainty around
purpose and objectives. (paragraph 7.36)
Finding out more about the current activities of
the Group is difficult, and has to be collected
from occasional mentions in other reports.
For instance, in July 2012, in the wake of the
Mark Kennedy exposure and the collapse of
Ratcliffe-on-Soar case, all parties involved with
undercover policing signed a memorandum of
understanding to improve their cooperation.(paragraph 7.104)
The Annual Report of the Chief Surveillance
Inspector (2013-2014) shows that the Secretary
and Chair of the NUWG have occasional meetings
with the Office of Surveillance
Commissioners. Another section of the Annual
Report indicates that these meetings are used to
address the Office's findings on shortcomings
found during inspections. The Report mentions
lack of clarity in relation to the requirements
of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act, in
the day to day management and oversight of
undercover operatives. Updates on longer-running
operations suffer from "cut and paste" content,
where collateral intrusion is mentioned in
particular as 'all too often a formulaic entry, month after month'.
Accreditation of undercover officers
Accreditation of training courses for undercover
officers is currently done via the College of
Policing using the work of the NUWG. Thus, the
National Undercover Working Group has approved
the training course for officers seeking advanced
undercover work offered by Metropolitan Police
Service, Greater Manchester Police and the
Serious Organised Crime Agency (now the National
Crime Agency). (paragraph 8.61)
All police officers seeking to be trained as
undercover officers must be approved in an
interview with a 'national assessment panel'. This panel:
'consists of two senior officers with
responsibility for an accredited undercover unit
and an experienced undercover covert operations
manager appointed by the chair of the National Undercover Working Group.
The NUWG also accredited the Special Project
Teams (SPT) of the four Counter Terrorism Units
for undercover work. The SPTs had taken over
responsibility for undercover infiltration in
relation to counter-terrorism and domestic extremism.
By June 2013, the NUWG was in the process of
developing a national training course for
Authorising Officers (those with the necessary
training and rank to authorise the deployment of
an undercover officer), which was to be finalised
over the next 12 months. '[U]ntil then, there is
still no formal training provision for ACPO authorising officers.'
This training course appears to have been
subsequently rolled out, by the College of
Policing and the Metropolitan Police,
while a number of private companies are offering similar training.
National guidance on undercover policing
The NUWG authors the main police guidance on the
training and use of undercover policing and help
sets national professional standards. In
particular, it prepared the section on Undercover
Policing of the Authorised Professional Practice
(APP). Formerly under the aegis of ACPO, but
now with the College of Policing, the APP is the
national source of professional guidance on
policing in England and Wales. According to a HM
Inspectorate of Constabulary 2012 report:
To this end, HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) and the
Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO)
National Undercover Working Group (NUWG)
developed guidance that set out the necessary
control measures by which managers assure
themselves and the courts that the undercover
officer has conducted themselves correctly. This
guidance also provides a definition of undercover officers
The 2012 HMIC report also states:
... the main source of operational advice on the
use of the undercover tactic is the ACPO
guidance. These guidelines set out mandatory
control measures for all UK law enforcement
bodies that deploy undercover officers. The
procedures were written in June 2003 and require
updating in order to reflect changes in the past
eight years and to provide clearer guidance in
relation to specific issues. HMIC is aware that
the National Undercover Working Group (NUWG)...
is currently working on producing updated guidance.
Of this guidance, HMIC said in relation to
undercover policing: 'The guidance is not
comprehensive, and, as a result, not of great use
to those responsible for managing undercover
deployments or for those who are actually deployed.' (paragraph 5.70).
The College of Policing stated in June 2013, in
response to the HMIC 2013 review, that it was
working with the NUWG to review existing
guidelines on undercover police work and was
taking into account the recommendations of the
2012 HMIC report. The updated guidelines were
published in summer 2015 on the College of
Policing's website as part of the Authorised Professional Practice.
Placement of undercovers
Another sign of the ongoing role in the placement
of undercover officers for the NUWG is this 2012 job advert:
G4S Policing Solutions are currently recruiting
for a Covert Policing Tactical Advisor. The
successful applicant will be required to
supervise undercover officers, provide expertise
on covert policing techniques and develop an
effective covert policing capability within the
Eastern Region Special Operations Unit (ERSOU) as
part of the National Undercover Working Group
structure. To contribute to achieving the Force vision, purpose and values.
Key responsibilities include the following:
To provide expertise on covert policing
techniques including tactical advice and guidance
to senior investigating officers managing undercover operations.
To undertake the administration, co-ordination
and facilitation of undercover operations
including the provision of expert tactical advice
to relevant parties in aspects of covert law
enforcement in general and undercover operations in particular.
To assist with asset procurement and maintenance
of all ERUU covert assets and infrastructure.
To supervise undercover officers working for and
on behalf of ERSOU thus providing the best
possible support to the region and outside agencies.
To ensure appropriate and safe use of ERUU
undercover officers for both legend building and
deployment for other units as part of the
National Undercover Working Group structure.
To maintain and where necessary establish close
working arrangements with other professional
bodies and agencies at the appropriate level.
To maintain effective liaison with, Force and
Regional officers including LPC/ BCU (Basic
Command Unit) at the appropriate level in
determining the services that can be provided and
to ensure the appropriate service/support is provided.
To deputise when directed for the ERUU Detective Sergeants.
To ensure all ERUU undercover officers receive
suitable training, guidance and direction.
To maintain an awareness of national, regional
and force developments in the areas of covert
policing, relevant legislation and changes in the
requirements of the Criminal Justice System.
To represent the ERUU undercover officer where
relevant, as part of the National Undercover Working Group structure.
The 2014 HMIC report wrote:
52. Overall, we found that the Working Group is
not working effectively, and that it has not done
so for some time. Those to whom we spoke had
little confidence in the Working Groups ability
to provide policy and guidance that should then
be adopted across all forces. There was also a
perception that the Working Group did not have
sufficient support from chief officers to give it
the influence that it needed to make sure that
forces complied with the national standards in a
consistent way. Too often, it relied too heavily
on the views of its influential and experienced
members to make decisions, rather than taking a
more objective approach based on sound evidence and good analysis....
7.51 Recent work by the College of Policing in
support of the National Undercover Working Group
is encouraging, but we believe that root and
branch reform of the way the Working Group operates is needed
Recommendation 11 The chief constable with lead
responsibility for Organised Crime Portfolio
should take immediate steps: to reconstitute the
National Undercover Working Group with people who
represent all the interests relevant to effective
undercover policing; to set clear and published
terms of reference and objectives; and to hold
the Working Group to account for the effective achievement of those objectives.
It was also noted that awareness of the
Authorised Professional Practice's guidance on
undercovers was little known among the undercover units. (paragraph 7.69)
Following interviews with those who managed or
oversaw undercover operations, the report concluded:
7.28 Overall, their general feeling was that the
Working Group is not working effectively, and
that it has not done so for some time. Those to
whom we spoke had little confidence in the
Working Groups ability to provide policy and
guidance that should then be adopted across all
forces. There was also a perception that the
Working Group did not have sufficient support
from chief officers to enable it to have the
influence that it needed in order to make sure
that forces complied with the national standards
in a consistent way. Too often, it relied too
heavily on the views of its influential and
experienced members to make decisions, rather
than taking a more objective approach based on
sound evidence and good analysis.
7.30 There were also concerns expressed to us
about the failure of the Working Group to
communicate effectively with the undercover
community the community for which it was
established to provide leadership and direction.
The report authors commented on the attitude of
the 'undercover community', saying:
7.33 A view that "the undercover community has
been nailed shut for years" accorded with our own
conclusion that there is a reluctance in some
quarters to embrace change or to accept challenge or criticism.
This lack of scrutiny went to the senior levels also:
7.49 We found that the leadership of undercover
policing at a national level lacks clarity of
purpose. This materially inhibits the way that
the National Undercover Working Group goes about
contributing to the setting of national standards
and being a conduit for sharing good practice.
The absence of scrutiny and challenge by either
the Organised Crime Portfolio or the National
Crime Business Area increases the risk of new
ideas being missed and poor practice not being identified.
In response to the criticism in the 2014 report,
Jon Boutcher, then Chair of the NUWG responded,
defending undercover policing as a tactic despite
'unacceptable behaviour by a number of undercover
officers in the past'. He also stating that
reforms were already underway, including the
establishment of an oversight group. This
group is believed to be the National Undercover
Scrutiny Panel (also known as the National Oversight Group).
Other recommendations from the Otter report included:
Recommendation 7 The National Undercover
Working Group should clarify the precise role of
the operational head (more commonly referred to
as the senior investigating officer) with regard
to the briefing of undercover officers and set
out clear guidance regarding which officer
(however he or she may be described) is responsible for what. (p.33)
Recommendation 18 The National Undercover
Working Group, with oversight from the chief
constable with responsibility for the National
Crime Business Area, should establish a blueprint
for the regionalisation of undercover policing
resources for forces which wish to bring their
resources together in this way. Its overarching
aim should be to ensure that those investigations
that would benefit most from deploying undercover
police officers are appropriately resourced, no
matter which force in the region hosts the investigation.(p.34)
Recommendation 19 The National Undercover
Working Group should devise a standard results
analysis check-sheet and require the appropriate
managers to complete it after each undercover
deployment is concluded. Issues that may have
national implications or relevance should be
brought to the attention of the National Undercover Working Group. (p.34)
Recommendation 20 The College of Policing
should issue guidance to all those who are able
to deploy undercover officers concerning any
deployment for intelligence-only purposes, to
reinforce the fact that every officer deployed in
every circumstance may be required to give
evidence in court about their conduct or use, and
about the evidence that they obtained during their deployment.(p.35)
Recommendation 21 The National Undercover
Working Group should work with representatives of
the Crown Prosecution Service to review the
memorandum of understanding between them and
other law enforcement agencies to require
consultation prior to the grant of any authority
to deploy undercover police officers.(p.35)
Recommendation 42 The National Undercover
Working Group should establish and circulate
detailed guidance on retaining records connected
to a request for the authorisation to deploy an
undercover officer. The records should include
those applications which are refused and those
which are subsequently amended and resubmitted for approval. (p.37)
Recommendation 46 The National Undercover
Working Group should establish and promulgate
clear guidance setting out the circumstances in
which inspectors from the Office of Surveillance
Commissioners should be able to visit covert premises.(p.37)
The Chair of the NUWG appears to be synonymous
with being the 'national policing lead for undercover policing'.
Trevor Pearce: Director General of the Serious
Organised Crime Agency, and Director of
Specialist Operations for its successor
organisation, the National Crime Agency. He spent
five years as chair of the NUWG. In 2011 he was
asked to conduct a review of the activities of
undercover officer Jim Boyling who had
infiltrated protest groups in London. He also
chaired the National Source Working Group, and
was a member of the Terrorism and Allied Matters
Committee. He has been vice-chair and chair
of the International Working Group on Undercover
Activities. A former Kent Special Branch
officer, his previous role in the National Crime
Squad places him close to the units that would
become the National Domestic Extremism units and
ran undercovers such as Lynn Watson and Mark
Kennedy. His role as head of SOCA also provided
him with oversight of that agency's role in the
European Cooperation Group on Undercover Activities.
Patricia Gallan, Deputy Assistant Commissioner,
Metropolitan Police; Chair of NUWG 2006 to
2012. She was asked by Commissioner Bernard
Hogan-Howe to establish Operation Herne (then
Operation Soisson) in the wake of the Mark
Kennedy exposure. She had stepped down by January
2013 due having too many other duties.
However, it was on the base of this role that she
stated to Parliament in June 2013 that the use of
identities of dead children by undercover
officers had stopped by 2012. Previously she
had served as 'Assistant Chief Constable with the
National Crime Squad in January 2005, taking
command of a wide and varied portfolio including
undercover policing operations, informants and
witness protection,' and had been a Detective
Superintendent with Criminal Investigations
Branch (SO11), working in covert policing. It
is also known that she also served as ACPO Lead
and Chair of the National Source Working Group
while an ACC at Merseyside Police. She had
previously been Director of Intelligence and
Operations Support (from January 2005) with the
National Crime Squad under Trevor Pearce.
Richard Martin, Commander, Head of Intelligence
and Covert Policing in the MPS Specialist Crime
and Operations division. He replaced Patricia
Gallan in January 2013 as Chair of the NUWG.
In 2013 Martin, as the person with
'responsibility for the oversight of intelligence
and covert policing in the MPS', and in his
capacity as NUWG chair gave two statements
supporting the police's position around the
controversial 'Neither Confirm Nor Deny' policy
of not revealing the identities of former
undercover officers in the case brought by eight
people who had relationships with undercovers
sent into protest movements. He stepped down
as NUWG chair in August 2014, though he denied it
was in advance the HMIC report (passim) which
came out in October that year, which criticised
poor leadership in the NUWG. He remained as a
member of the NUWG. His successor, Jon Boutcher, stated:
Commander Richard Martin made a decision in
August 2014 that, as undercover policing is such
an important issue, the working group would
benefit from the leadership of a more senior
police officer with a greater influence
nationally... Richard Martin is still providing a
valuable contribution to the working group and
has done an outstanding job in designing the
programme of work that is now delivering the
improvements that the report recommends.
Jon Boutcher, Deputy Chief Constable of
Bedforshire Police. Replaced Richard Martin as
Chair of the NUWG in August 2014. He had
previously been National Co-ordinator PURSUE, and
is also National Policing lead for the Regulation
of Investigatory Powers Act. He was still
chair in June 2015 when he was involved in the
National Undercover Scrutiny Panel. He also
oversees the Eastern Region Special Operations
Unit noted in the job advert above, and has a
noted career first as an officer with the
Metropolitan Police's Flying Squad, the National
Crime Squad, and then as a senior investigator in counter-terrorism.
Kevin O'Leary: 2002 to 2010 was Head of
Operations (Specialist Crime) for the
Metropolitan Police. In 2012, as Detective Chief
Superintendent, was 'responsible for all
detective, intelligence and forensic operational
teams' during the 2012 Olympics. Of his work he has written:
I created a strategic ethics committee in 2008 to
provide an additional layer of governance in the
use of intrusive methods of investigation. I
recruited academics, lawyers and senior people
from NGOs to provide a sounding board for
proposed operations, taking external views and
feedback on the proportionality of covert policing methods.
I led the national training & development working
group, modernising the selection, recruitment,
training and continuing professional development
of specialist officers. This was a significant
project, negotiating with and influencing
representatives from all UK police forces and
other law enforcement agencies to accept and
adopt proposals for radical reforms and
modernisation, now embedded as 'Authorised
Professional Practice' within the College of Policing.
I was elected as the chair of an international
working group for two years in 2009, leading a
network of colleagues sharing in good practice
and specialist investigative techniques in more than 40 countries.
Commended for leadership of the unit by
Commander, Covert Policing, New Scotland Yard in 2010.
He is the author of A final report from the
National Undercover Working Group Training and
Development sub-group (2010).
Del Mehat. From August 2010 - September 2011, was
a Detective Chief Inspector managing the Covert
Operations Unit (SCD10) in the Metropolitan
Police. According to his LinkedIn profile, during this time he was:
chair of the national training subgroup for the NUWG;
represented UK police at the International
Working Group on Undercover Policing; and
was the national lead on recruitment, selection
and training of undercover officers.
Previously, from April 2003 to September 2008, he
represented the MPS at the NUWG while leading two
teams of covert police for SCD10/11, still according to his LinkedIn profile:
I was also instrumental in the development of a
new Infiltration Unit for the MPS using my
experience from a similar project whilst I was
employed at the National Crime Squad. In
addition, I was the course director of the
National Undercover Training and Assessment
Course and responsible for developing training for Baltic Nations.
I ensured that all undercover training nationally
was accredited to ensure interoperability and I
developed an innovative method of infiltrating
communities through working with local commanders
and local authorities to fight crime using covert methods at a local level.
Enhanced the use of the "Ethics Committee" to
scrutinise undercover operations from an independent viewpoint.
Course Director for the National Undercover Training Course
Branch lead on diversity to recruit, retain and progress minority groups.
Developed a diversity strategy which was rolled out to other departments.
Frankie Flood, QPM: listed as a representative of
the National Undercover Working Group at the June
2015 meeting of the National Undercover Scrutiny
Panel. Detective Superintendent, Head of
Covert Governance and Intelligence Compliance for
the Metropolitan Police in 2015. As head of
the Covert Standard Unit in the Metropolitan
Police he is also the secretary of the NPCC's
National Operational Security Working Group.
Kingsley Hyland: Solicitor-Advocate and Head of
the Complex Casework Unit for Crown Prosecution
Service North East. Member of the Peer Review
Group of the inter-agency review of RIPA. Also described as:
the CPS representative on National Source Working
Group and on the National Undercover Working
Group, the CPS lead tutor on covert law enforcement issues.
Jon Murphy: Chief Constable of Merseyside, where
he had previously served under Bernard Hogan-Howe
and alongside Pat Gallan as an Assistant Chief
Constable. It was Murphy who spoke out on behalf
of ACPO when the Mark Kennedy undercover policing
scandal broke in 2011. As head of the Crime
Business Area, he has also spoken on behalf of
the NUWG in College of Policing meetings in 2015 where he reported:
5.1 Members noted progress made by the National
Undercover Working Group and the College to
implement the undercover action plan which was
recently submitted to the Home Secretary and
published in the House of Commons Library.
5.2 The consequences of rescinding licences and
accreditation for undercover policing units and officers was also discussed.
2001 to 2004 he had been Assistant Chief
Constable (Operations) for the National Crime
Squad, where he had served under Trevor Pearce.
National Undercover Scrutiny Panel
Covert Policing Ethics Committee
National Public Order Intelligence Unit
Serious Organised Crime Agency
European Cooperation Group on Undercover Activities
International Working Group on Undercover Activities
HM Inspectorate of Constabulary reports:
2014: An inspection of undercover policing in England and Wales
2013: A review of progress made against the
recommendations in HMICs 2012 report on the
national police units which provide intelligence
on criminality associated with protest
2012: A review of national police units which
provide intelligence on criminality associated with protest
? 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 HM Inspectorate of
Constabulary, A review of national police units
which provide intelligence on criminality
associated with protest, January 2012 (accessed 31 March 2015).
? 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Stephen Otter (lead
author), An inspection of undercover policing in
England and Wales, HM Inspectorate of
Constabulary, October 2014 (accessed 30 March 2015).
? Jason Lavan, National undercover scrutiny
panel, College of Policing press release, 13
March 2015 (accessed 23 March 2015).
? BBC News, Acpo overhaul needed, says general's
report for PCCs, 14 November 2013, accessed August 2015.
? Nick Parker,
Independent Review of ACPO, August 2013 (accessed August 2015).
? 6.0 6.1 6.2 HM Inspectorate of Constabulary, A
review of progress made against the
recommendations in HMICs 2012 report on the
national police units which provide intelligence
on criminality associated with protest, 27 June
2013, p. 6 para. 2.17 (accessed 30 March 2015)
? 7.0 7.1 7.2 Jon Boutcher, Reforms of undercover
policing already underway, National Police
Chiefs' Council, press release, 14 October 2014 (accessed 1 April 2015).
? 8.0 8.1 Damian Green, Government Response to
the Committee's Thirteenth Report of Session
2012-13, Home Affairs Committee, 18 June 2013 (accessed 1 April 2015).
? Neil Smith, Response to Freedom of Information
Request, College of Policing, 26 November 2015 (accessed 26 November 2015).
? The Memorandum of Understanding was signed by
Keir Starmer QC, Director of Public Prosecutions,
Sir Hugh Orde OBE QPM (Association of Chief
Police Officers), Trevor Pearce QPM (Serious
Organised Crime Agency) and Donald Toon (HM
Revenue & Customs) in June 2012. Crown
Prosecution Service Closer working on prosecution
cases involving undercover police officers as
agreement is signed between investigators and
prosecutors, press release, 3 July 2012 (accessed August 2015).
? Sir Christopher Rose, Annual Report of the
Chief Surveillance Commissioner for 2013-14,
Office of Surveillance Commissioners, 4 September
2014, p. 7 (accessed August 2015).
? Sir Christopher Rose, Annual Report of the
Chief Surveillance Commissioner for 2013-14,
Office of Surveillance Commissioners, 4 September
2014, p. 17-18 (accessed August 2015).
? Enhanced Intelligence Course, College of
Policing, 2015 (accessed 22 November 2015).
? CHIS Authorising Officers Course, Metropolitan
Police Service, 2015 (accessed 22 November 2015).
? For example, The Training Company Ltd and Xact
Consultancy & Training Limited (sites accessed 22 November 2015).
? Natalie Davison, College of Policing response
to HMIC report on deployment of undercover police
officers, College of Policing, 27 June 2013 (accessed 1 April 2015).
? Covert Policing: Undercover Policing,
Authorised Professional Practice, College of
Policing, first published 14 July 2015 and
subsequently amended (accessed 22 November 2015).
? G4S, Covert Policing Tactical Advisor, 17
January 2012 (accessed 31 March 2015).
? Jonathan Owen, Half of all undercover police
officers in UK are off the books and not on
national database, The Independent, 14 October 2014 (accessed 1 April 2015).
? Met police officer 'took part in trial under
false name' , London Evening Standard, 20 October
2011 (accessed 30 March 2015).
? National Crime Agency, The Board: Director:
Specialist Investigations - Trevor Pearce CBE,
QPM, undated (accessed 1 April 2015).
? IFSec Global, Senior appointments confirmed as
National Crime Agency takes shape, undated (accessed 1 April 2015).
? 23.0 23.1 British Association of Women Police,
Patricia Gallan, QPM, undated (accessed 31 March 2015).
? 24.0 24.1 Metropolitan Police Service,
Clarification on ACPO lead for National
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